Union Government

India is the largest democracy of the world. It has a federal parliamentary democratic republican system.   The Union Executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and Council of Ministers with Prime Minster as the head to advice the President to function the government.

Indian Parliament has two houses i.e. Lok Sabha (House of the people) and Rajya Sabha (The council of the states).  The President is the integral part of the Parliament.  The maximum strength of Lok Sabha  as  envisaged by the Constitution is 552, which is made up by election of up to 530 members to represent the States, up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories . Two members of the Anglo-Indian Community are nominated by the President, if he/she thinks that this community is not adequately represented in the House.

President

Article 52 says that there shall be a President of India. It holds office for a term of five years.  The President can resign from his office or may be removed through the process of impeachment.  He can be impeached for the violation of the constitution.  The President is elected indirectly by an Electoral College by the single transferable vote system of proportional representation. His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election.

Qualification

  1. He must be a citizen of India
  2. Must have completed the age of 35 years
  3. Must be qualified for election to House of the people
  4. He must not hold any office of profit under the government of India or State.

Powers

The President enjoys legislative, financial and emergency powers.

Legislative Powers

On the advice of his Council of Ministers the President can promulgate ordinances at any time. He can nominate 12 members to Rajya Sabha and not more than 2 members of the Anglo-Indian Community to the Lok Sabha.

The President can appoint a Finance Commission and permits annual budget to be laid before the Parliament.

A money bill cannot be introduced in the Lok Sabha unless the president does not give his assent.

Emergency Powers

In the following conditions, the President can enjoy the emergency powers:

  1. In case of War, External aggression or Armed Rebellion
  2. If Constitutional Machinery fails in the State
  3. In case of Financial Emergency

Judicial Powers

Article 72 provides that the President has the authority to grant pardon, reprieve, respite, remit and commute a punishment.

Vice-President

Article 63 has a provision for the Vice-President. He is the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. He is not a member of the upper house (Rajya Sabha) thus has no right to vote. But in case of tie he can use his vote. He acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his duties due to absence, illness or any other cause or till the election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death, resignation or removal or otherwise of President). It is noteworthy, while action as President he stops to perform the function of Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Qualification

  1. He must be a citizen of India
  2. Must have completed the age of 35 years
  3. Must be qualified for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha
  4. He must not hold any office of profit under the government of India or State.

The Vice-President is elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election.