Flood is one the most severe natural disasters. The maximum flooding is caused by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers in India.
Causes of Floods: When water over flows beyond its normal course floods occur. The damage it causes to people and property is known as the flood hazard . When a river overflows its banks and the water spreads in the surrounding regions , it is known as the riverine flood. Before a flood begins, the maximum amount of water that a river can hold is known as the river’s channel capacity. Sometimes blocking of river channel due to landslides may bring flood. Strong tides and storms at sea may also bring flood. When massive cyclones and tsunamis over the water bodies occur it causes the flood. Apart from all these causes, silting of river beds or sediment depositions may also causes flood. River estuaries and sea coasts experience flood when the sea level rises. Change in the course of a river and narrowness, floods of the rivers, faulty engineering designs in the construction of dams and canals may also causes flood.
Flood –Prone Areas . About, one-eight of the total area of India is estimated to be flood-prone. North and Eastern India are vulnerable to floods. The Indo –Gangetic –Brahmaprtra plains in the north and Northeast India are the most floods prone areas.
The Indus , the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers carry approximately 60 per cent of the total river flow in India. The Brahmaprtra–Ganga and Meghana basins are spread over 15 states and nearly 47 per cent of our country’s population lives in the basin.
Northwest regions are also flood–prone areas with the west flowing rivers such as the Narmada and Tapti. In the Decean Plateau , the delta regions of the Mahanadi , Godavari , Krishna and Cauvery river all these rivers are east-flowing experience occasional floods. In other words , it can be said that floods in Southern India are not as frequent as they are in Northern India.
Main Season for Floods. The main reason of floods is the west monsoon period (June to September) in India. During these four months nearly 75 per cent of the total rainfall occurs. Consequently, the rivers have a massive discharge during this period. It leads to widespread floods.
Effects of Floods : Flooding is one of the most devastating and destructive natural disasters. It causes heavy economic devastation and people suffer from much atrocities. floods cause massive loss of life and property. Unfortunately, floods are yearly feature in some parts of India. This natural calamity create panic among the affected persons. Heavy floods get cut off many from rest of the country. In addition to all these, floods create havoc and damage standing crops , leading to famine like conditions. Backward people are more vulnerable to floods . Their houses, animals and animals shelters are washed away.