SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1643-1727): Isaac Newton was one of the world’s renowned physicist and mathematician and scientists. He was born in Woolsthorpe in England. He gave the three rules of motion. He is most famous for his law of gravitation and he was pioneer in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.  In optics, he discovered the composition of white light and integrated the phenomena of color into the science of light and likewise, in mechanics his three laws of motion have become the basic principles of modern physics.  He has written the books , Arithmetica Universalis, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, An Historical Account of two notable corruption of scripture, Method of Fluxions, Opuscula mathematica philosophica et philological, Optive, sive De reflexionibus, refraction bus, inflexion bus,

ALFRED NOBEL (1833-1896): He was great Swedish chemist and inventor.  who invented dynamite in 1867 and galligineite, explosive materials in 1875, making him very rich.  Posthumously, he left an immense estate for the Nobel Prize, which is awarded for a special achievement in the field of science, art and medicine, literature, peace and economics.

AKBAR (1556-1605: Greatest Mughal emperor, Akbar is known for his liberal policy towards other religions. He introduced new religion; Din-i-Elahi.He abolished Jazia and pilgrim tax.

AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 – 1856):  Avogadro was great Italian mathematician physicist.  It is noteworthy to learn the in 1806; Italian lawyer Armédio Avogedro (1776-1856) left his profession for the study of physics. In 1811, Avogedro showed that in all the gases of the same volume, the same numbers of particles are equal in equal temperature and equal pressure. This rule is now called the rule of Avogadro. He wrote four memoirs on atomic volumes and designated affinity numbers for the elements using atomic volumes.

He did not receive much recognition and acclamation for his works during his lifetime and his contributions to science were recognized years after his death.

ANTOIN LAVOISIER (1743-1794): Antoin was a French chemist and is considered the founder of modern chemistry.   He gave the names oxygen and hydrogen. He is constructed the metric system. He made the first extensive list of elements and reformed the chemical nomenclature. He proved that sulfur was an element rather than a compound. He was the first who found out that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. He wrote the book ‘Methods of Chemical Nomenclature’ and set the method of naming substances by their composition of elements. It is still used today.

ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955): Albert Einstein was born at Ulm in Germany. He is the most famous scientist of the world.  His parents were Jewish. He made remarkable contributions to the field of theoretical physics.  He propounded the theory of relativity. He produced one of the most famous equations ever: E = mc² (energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared).  For his great contribution he was awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on theoretical physics in 1921. He is also known for bringing out the deflection of light by gravity, Brownian motion, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids etc. In fact he has become synonyms for genius mind.

ARISTOLE (384-322 AD): Aristotle was a great Greek philosopher.  He was considered the most intelligent person of his time. He was the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology and ethics.    He was much ahead of his time and did not rely on the traditions and used to reach any conclusion only after checking any incident. He was teacher of the great Alexander.

Aristotle wrote about 400 books which were based on various subjects such as physics, science, biology, drama, music, logic, political etc. His writing, thoughts and ideas are still taught in colleges and universities with great respect. His book ‘Poetics’ is a scientific study of writing and poetry. He wrote the books such as ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ and ‘Eudemian Ethics’, ‘Rhetoric’, Politics, Metaphysics etc.