Vedas are ancient India’s great cultural heritage. The word Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vida’ that denotes gyan or knowledge. They contain various hymns and religious texts. Vedas are backbone of our great historial and cultural tradition. These Vedas are great source of wisdom and knowledge. Vedas are four in numbers as follows:
Rig Veda is considered the earliest Veda. It gives knowledge of the hymns of praise for recitation. It is a collection of 1028 hymns and divided in ten books. These ten books are called as mandals. It is written between 1700-1500 B.C. Rig Veda contains the sacred and famous Gyatri Mantra. Rig Veda is written by several seers (rishis). These rishis are Atri, Kanva, Vasihtha, Gautam , Vishwamitra, Bhardwaja and Jamdagni. It is known to be sung by Hotra. Rig Veda defines India as Bharat and Jambudweepa. Rig Veda is a source of religious, political, social and economic information of that period.
Samveda is a collection of melodies. Sama denotes soma that is Amrita (Drink for immortality). It consists of 1063 hymns. Sam Veda is considered to be sung by Udgata. It is composed in the form of rags. Sam Veda is the foundation of Indian music tradition.
Unlike other Vedas, Yajur Veda is written in prose. It is considered to be compiled by Vyasa. It is a collection of 730 hymns having 6000 mantras. Yajurveda is divided into Shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajurveda
t is divided into twenty books dealing with rituals and ceremonies. Yajurveda is recited by Aadhavayu. In fact, Yajur Veda is a guiding book for the priests who performed various rituals. It is composed between 1400 BC to 1000 BC.
Atharva Veda consists of spells, prayers especially to protect crops from natural tragedies.
These natural tragedies include drought, lightning and flood etc. Atharva Veda is a collection 711 hymns .It is also known as Brahma Veda. It is said to be the work of non-Aryans. Ayurveda, Mathematics and geometry are considered to be arisen from Atharva Veda. It is written between 1200 BC to 1000 BC.