The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a political, economic, and military organization that was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of Russia, China, and Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism. India and Pakistan became its members on 10 July 2015. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization Charter was signed during the St. Petersburg SCO Heads of State meeting in June 2002 and came into force on 19 September 2003. This is the fundamental statutory document that outlines the organization’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities of three years.
The primary objectives of SCO are to strengthening mutual trust and neighborliness among the member states; promote their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology, and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas; making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security, and stability in the region; and moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.
Its headquarter is located in Beijing, China. The council of Heads of State is the apex decision making body in the SCO. This council meets at the SCO summits, which are held each year in one of the member states’ capital cities.
The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decision-making body in the SCO The organization has two permanent bodies — the SCO Secretariat based in Beijing and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) based in Tashkent. The SCO Secretary-General and the Director of the Executive Committee of the SCO RATS are appointed by the Council of Heads of State for a term
The SCO Secretary-General and the Director of the Executive Committee of the SCO RATS are appointed by the Council of Heads of State for a term of three years.