Fundamental rights are those rights which are essential for the mental, physical, psychological, social, economic and intellectual growth of the citizens of the country. Without these basic rights we cannot think of liberty. Keeping this in view, framers of the Constitution drew a wide plan and gave us these fundamental rights. These rights ensure protection of individual against arbitrary rule of individual and organization. They cannot be suspended or abridged except in manner laid down in the Constitution itself. There may be restriction by the President in the period of national emergency. The original Constitution classified the Fundamental Rights into 7 groups. Later in by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978 right to property was repealed. Part III of the Indian Constitution deals with the Fundamental rights.
1. Right to Equality
This fundamental right is dealt in Articles 14 to 18. Under this, there will be no discrimination on the ground of sex, religion, caster, race, place of birth, etc. Practice of untouchability may liable to legal action. There will be equality of opportunity in matter of public employment.
2. Right to Freedom
Right to freedom is described in Articles 19 to 22. This is key fundamental right as it provides six kinds of following freedoms:
Freedom of speech and expression;
Freedom to form union and associations;
Freedom to move throughout the country;
Freedom to assemble freely and peacefully;
Freedom of adopting any profession;
Freedom to reside in any part of the country.
3. Right against Exploitation
Right against Exploitation deals is described in the articles 23-24. This right prohibits any sorts of exploitation it also bans on human trafficking and child labour and forced labour.
4. Right to freedom of religion
This fundamental right is presented in articles 25 to 28. It gives the right to profess, practice and propagate any religion on one’s choice or like. The state shall not compel any citizen to pay any tax for the promotion of any particular religion or religious institution.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights
Articles 29-30 deals with cultural and educational rights. This right provides the citizens to conserve their own language and culture
6. Right to Property
Reduced to legal right rather than fundamental right by the amendment by 44th Amendment Act, 1978,